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Surging heat may limit aircraft takeoffs globally: study

Surging heat may limit aircraft takeoffs globally: study

Rising temperatures due to global warming will make it harder for aircraft to travel in the world in the coming decades, according to a study.

During hotter periods of the day, 10 to 30 percent of the aircraft with full load may be needed to remove fuel, cargo or passengers, or wait for cooler hours to fly, according to the researchers.
“Our results suggest that weight restriction can be imposed at a non-trivial cost to airlines and affect airline operations around the world,” said Ethan Coffel of Columbia University in the US.

As the air heats up, it expands and its density decreases. In the finer air, the wings produce less lift when an airplane runs along a runway, the researchers said.

Therefore, depending on the model of the aircraft, track length and other factors, at some point, a packaging aircraft may not be able to take off safely if the temperature is too high. The weight should be discharged, delayed or canceled the flight otherwise, they said.

Global average temperatures have risen by almost one degree Celsius since 1980, and this may already have an effect.

Globally, the average temperature is expected to rise to three degrees Celsius by the year 2100, they said.

However, heat waves are becoming more common, the daily maximum daily temperatures at airports around the world to increase the ratio of four to eight degrees Celsius by 2080, according to the study.

These are the heat waves that can cause more problems.

“This highlights the risk of unmanaged climate change in aviation,” said Radley Horton, a climatologist at Columbia University.

“As the world becomes more integrated and aviation grows, there can be significant potential for economic and other cascading effects,” said Horton, co-author of the study published in the journal Climate Change.

Most studies so far have focused on how aviation can affect global warming (airplanes account for about 2 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions), not the other way around.

However, a handful of studies have warned that global warming could increase dangerous turbulence along major air routes, and winds that could extend travel time.

The new study provides the effects on a wide range of aircraft at the busiest airports in the United States, Europe, the Middle East, China and South Asia.

Researchers estimate that if greenhouse gas emissions continue unabated, fuel capacity and payload weight will be reduced by four percent on warmer days for a particular aircraft.

If the world manages to drastically reduce carbon emissions shortly, these reductions could reach 0.5 percent. 100, they said.

For an average operating aircraft today, a four percent weight reduction would be about 12 or 13 passengers less on an average 160-seat machine.

This does not account for the significant logistical and economic effects of delays and cancellations that can instantly convert one center to another, Horton said.

Some aircraft with lower temperature tolerances are much worse than others, and some airports – those with shorter runs, in warmer areas of the world or at heights, where the air is already thinner – suffer more.

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Indian Astronomers Discover Supercluster of Galaxies, Name It ‘Saraswati’

Indian Astronomers Discover Supercluster of Galaxies, Name It ‘Saraswati’

 

A team of astronomers from India discovered an extremely large supergroup of galaxies – as large as 20 million billion soles – named Saraswati, the Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA) based in Pune.

This is one of the largest known structures in the vicinity of the universe, 4000 million light years from Earth and about 10 billion years, IUCAA said.

Its mass extends 600 million light-years away, he said.

Scientists at this institute also participated in the discovery of last year’s gravitational waves.

The supergroup was discovered by Joydeep Bagchi, a faculty member at IUCCA; Shishir Sankhyayan, PhD student at the Indian Institute of Education and Research Sciences (IISER), Pune; Prakash Sarkar of the National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur; Somak Raychaudhury, Director IUCAA; Joe Jacob of Newman College, Kerala and Pratik Dabhade, IUCAA researcher.

Their findings were published in the latest issue of The Astrophysical Journal, the first research journal of the American Astronomical Society.

“Large sets are the largest coherent structures of the cosmic network. They are a chain of galaxies and galaxies, bound by gravity, often extending to several hundred times the size of galaxy clusters, made up of tens of thousands of Galaxies, “IUCAA said in a statement.

Sankhyayan said that the “newly discovered Saraswati super-clusterter” spreads on a scale of 600 million light-years and may contain the mass equivalent of more than 20 billion soles.

A cluster of galaxies could have 1000-10 000. A super cluster can have groups of 40 to 43, he added.

“Our own galaxy is part of a group called super supergroup Laniakea,” IUCAA said.

Bagchi, IUCAA, lead author of the article in the journal, and co-author Sankhyayan said they were “surprised to discover this gigantic super-group of galaxies,” visible in a large spectroscopic study of distant galaxies known as the digital Sloan Sky Survey.

Sankhyayan said the data were analyzed, after which the discovery was made.

“This super-cluster is clearly integrated into a large network of cosmic filaments drawn by clusters and large gaps,” said M. Bagchi.

It has been previously said that he had reported “only a few relatively large super sets”, such as the concentration of Shapley or Great Wall Sloan in the nearby universe.

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Indian Astronomers Discover Supercluster of Galaxies, Name It ‘Saraswati’

Indian Astronomers Discover Supercluster of Galaxies, Name It ‘Saraswati’

 

A team of astronomers from India discovered an extremely large supergroup of galaxies – as large as 20 million billion soles – named Saraswati, the Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA) based in Pune.

This is one of the largest known structures in the vicinity of the universe, 4000 million light years from Earth and about 10 billion years, IUCAA said.

Its mass extends 600 million light-years away, he said.

Scientists at this institute also participated in the discovery of last year’s gravitational waves.

The supergroup was discovered by Joydeep Bagchi, a faculty member at IUCCA; Shishir Sankhyayan, PhD student at the Indian Institute of Education and Research Sciences (IISER), Pune; Prakash Sarkar of the National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur; Somak Raychaudhury, Director IUCAA; Joe Jacob of Newman College, Kerala and Pratik Dabhade, IUCAA researcher.

Their findings were published in the latest issue of The Astrophysical Journal, the first research journal of the American Astronomical Society.

“Large sets are the largest coherent structures of the cosmic network. They are a chain of galaxies and galaxies, bound by gravity, often extending to several hundred times the size of galaxy clusters, made up of tens of thousands of Galaxies, “IUCAA said in a statement.

Sankhyayan said that the “newly discovered Saraswati super-clusterter” spreads on a scale of 600 million light-years and may contain the mass equivalent of more than 20 billion soles.

A cluster of galaxies could have 1000-10 000. A super cluster can have groups of 40 to 43, he added.

“Our own galaxy is part of a group called super supergroup Laniakea,” IUCAA said.

Bagchi, IUCAA, lead author of the article in the journal, and co-author Sankhyayan said they were “surprised to discover this gigantic super-group of galaxies,” visible in a large spectroscopic study of distant galaxies known as the digital Sloan Sky Survey.

Sankhyayan said the data were analyzed, after which the discovery was made.

“This super-cluster is clearly integrated into a large network of cosmic filaments drawn by clusters and large gaps,” said M. Bagchi.

It has been previously said that he had reported “only a few relatively large super sets”, such as the concentration of Shapley or Great Wall Sloan in the nearby universe.

“The Saraswati supergroup is very far,” Bagchi said.

Both hoped that the work would be to help illuminate “baffled questions” for example, how they had been trained there groups density such materials for billions of years.

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New York Times article maligning Yogi Adityanath sparks anger in Agra

New York Times article maligning Yogi Adityanath sparks anger in Agra

At a time when even the president of the United States Donald Trump is openly praising Prime Minister Narendra Modi saying he wants to follow the steps taken by Modi in bringing his country back on track, the American media is busy defaming Uttar Pradesh Yogi Adityanath and his state.

On Friday, the people of Agra became infuriated by reading a mischievous story about Yogi Adityanath published in the New York Times entitled “The Indian cleric of the puppets ascended the political ladder of India” and claimed that it was an attempt by New York Times of Yogi Adityanath’s failure and his growing stature in Indian politics.

Simulated copies of the New York Times were burned at various places in protest of the news.

Speaking to India Today, members of the Hindustani Biradari group said that Yogi Adityanath is carrying out the ‘Sabka Sath Sabka Vikas’ agenda set by Prime Minister Modi and is working towards the progress of Uttar Pradesh.

Secretary Ziauddin said that the image of Yogi Adityanath has undergone a tremendous transformation since he became Prime Minister of UP and what the New York Times wrote against PM Modi and Yogi Adityanath seems to be following an anti-Modi agenda.

He said that many Westerners of the elite, as well as the Indians, are still unable to digest that an ascetic like Yogi Adityanath could become the country’s most populous state minister and a tea vendor like Narendra Modi could become the prime minister Of the world’s largest democracy.

He said the article portrays Yogi Adityanath as the leader of a militant Hindu sect, which creates a misunderstanding among international readers that Uttar Pradesh has been taken over by militant Hindus and is not safe to come here. He said that even when US President Donald Trump praises PM Modi, the New York Times seems to be doing the opposite by questioning PM Modi’s judgment by naming Yogi Adityanath as the PM’s prime minister.

Social activist Amir Qureshi said that Yogi Adityanath is not a PM candidate, as this article appears to be portraying. While Modi is busy developing the country, Yogi Adityanath is working hard to bring Uttar Pradesh to the main states of the country. The agenda of these two is only development, not to make India a Hindu nation as the New York Times says.

Qureshi added that the New York Times reporter seems to have written the news in the United States when he should have visited Uttar Pradesh and seen for himself how these two are working hard for the country.

He said that the New York Times story is a pack of lies and that the 20 Muslim crore in India are not considered separate from their Hindu, Christian and Sikh brethren, and minor incidents between these communities should not be given as prominence as This is very great country and such disagreements are bound to happen even in small families.